It is, therefore, necessary that the concrete slab is designed to withstand the stress due to warping the wheel loaded at the edge region. First, put on some heavy duty gloves. Rowe Source: Magazine of Concrete Research, Volume 9, Issue 27 , 1 Nov 1957 (151–160). BuildBlock Building Systems, LLC 9705 N. To lift the concrete off the trapped worker, you’d need 12 guys each lifting 100 pounds to lift half the weight, to lift it up like you were lifting the load on a wheel barrow (which is a 2 nd class lever). The slabs were subjected to patch load applied at the center of slabs. The 4 Wheel Dolly is used to move loads around the work site. How To Reinforce Concrete Slab on Ground to Control Cracking Steel reinforcing bars and welded wire reinforcement provide crack width control in nonstructural slabs-on-ground. It accounts for wheel load impact from moving vehicles. The increase in stress, 'i', due to a 2nd wheel (or post) load expressed as a percentage of stress for a single wheel (or post) load and is to be input by the user. All the tests showed failure in punching shear at loads much higher than expected from the current codes. doc Author: pezeshk Created Date: 1/24/2007 8:18:00 AM. The design live loads applied to the top slabs of box culverts include the HL-93 truck and tandem loads for box culverts of any span length. , the word “trailer” can refer to a towable recreational vehicle used for part-time leisure occupation and to a manufactured home -- designed with wheels and a tow hitch intended for delivery only -- that is used for full-time occupation. 7% Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, Type S9. Concrete Flexual Strength, MR = psi: MR = 9*SQRT(f 'c) (Modulus of Rupture) Concrete Working Stress, WS = psi: WS = MR/FS: Slab Stress/1000 lb. Steel clamps and handgrips are used to lift and turn object, such as plates and beams, in multiple directions. 2,500-psi concrete slab on 2 inches of EPS insula-tion with a rated stiffness of 360 psi for one inch. Load bearing concrete slabs-on-ground face two types of loadings: static and dynamic loadings. It is observed that the dead load and wheel load longitudi-nal stresses for RCC deck slab increases with the increase in span for all aspect ratios. Lower the formwork on one side to allow a slight fall for water run off when doing pathways and slabs. For box culverts with spans of 15 feet or greater lane loads are also applied to the top slabs of box culverts. The 205 mm thick precast concrete slabs are a lane-width wide (3. - Incorrect placement can lead to serious concrete structural failures. The dynamic load allowance replaces the effect of impact used in AASHTO Standard Specifications. The edge loading condition in the design of rigid pavements by the Westergaard method is more frequently used as the critical condition. The strength of concrete is rated using megapascals (MPa). Additional loading cases considered for concrete box girder bridges. 3 for top slabs of box culverts which states “The design load is always an axle load; single wheel loads are not considered. INTRODUCTION Deterioration of highway bridges due to traffic load is becoming a serious problem worldwide. Apron areas within 50 feet of the concourses in open spaces under the concourse where aircraft loads will not be imposed shall be 8” thick. Introduction Aggregate interlock is an effective mechanism in transferring loads across discontinuities, such as joints and cracks, in plain or reinforced cement concrete pavements (Ioannides & Korovesis, 1990). 2 Steel-fibre-reinforced concrete 52 9 A3 Synthetic-fibre-reinforced concrete 52 9. Small differences in floor slopes may be compensated for by proper shimming. Cast-in-place concrete I I Transverse post-tensioning (at diaphragm location) I 13 = 10 140 A-A B-B Cross Section Fig. (2) Weight of slab covering materials:. Concrete Slab on Grade Analysis for Post and Wheel Loading Download & Save the software to use (requires MS Excel) Enter your search terms Submit search form. 5 for corner columns. The Rated Axle Load Enhancement (RALE) system concept involves the use of longitudinal stems to stiffen the concrete slab. A (65 KN) wheel load is placed on a Portland ccmcnt concrctc slab that is (0. Finite element model for wheel load at Position No. or of concrete is such as to inidate internQ. 5 Wheel Spacing, S = 81. (27 head pans) Stone is 4 parts, therefore 4/7 of 2400 = 1368kg. Nov 18th, 3:20 PM. The reinforced concrete waffle slab (ribbed slab) plan view includes main top longitudinal and transverse reinforcement, ribbing (beams) reinforcement, waffles dimensioning, voids width. It is joined by 2 solid rubber wheels, 2 swivel wheels and a channel. Fig 2: Transfer of wheel load to foundation in rigid pavement structure a) Concrete Slab (Surface Layer). The concrete slab is constructed according to a designed choice of plan dimensions for the slab panels, directly influencing the intensity of thermal stresses occurring within the pavement. Below is a concise table that shows the bending moment equations for different beam setups. Library of standard predefined moving loads (trucks): Trucks CL-625 (including Ontario and Saskatchewan), CS-600, QS-600 and HL-93; Custom moving loads – weight, wheel and axles spacing. Deck slabs in slab/girder bridges are subjected to wheel load distributed on contact area touches the slab surface. Make Offer - 4" Diamond Grinding Cup Wheel Resin-Wet/Dry Granite Marble Stone 3 GRITS AVAIL. Specifically, a concrete slab on grade may be subjected to concentrated post or wheel loading. Below-the-hook lifting devices and accessories attach to or fit around loads for safe lifting and positioning. concrete and fibre reinforced concrete slabs on ground to understand the effect of fibre quantity and type of fibres. 12 Membrane slab—A membrane slab is a slab-on-grade designed to be liquid-tight and transmit loads directly to the subgrade. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. For more heavily loaded slabs however, and slabs with known heavy point loads, stacking loads and repetitive wheel loads, analysis and design is often required to satisfy the engineer that the slab. (406 mm) deep x 48 in. Nanjing MEISHUO Building Materials Co. To construct a post-hole footing, builders dig a narrow, deep hole and fill the hole with mixed concrete. Such plain concrete slabs are referred to as membrane, floating, or filler slabs and range in thickness from as little as 4" to 8" depending on the supported loads. If a floor is of questionable slope, consider a survey of the site and/or the possibility of pouring a new level concrete slab. 2 Material The material properties can be found in chapter 5 of model code 2010. Concrete Floor Slabs on Grade Subj to Heavy Loads [US Army TM 5-809-12] | | download | B–OK. The increase in stress, 'i', due to a 2nd wheel (or post) load expressed as a percentage of stress for a single wheel (or post) load and is to be input by the user. Part of the QUIKRETE® network of nearly 150 world-class facilities, Willamette Graystone, LLC provides customers with a single-source for all purchasing. Numerous solutions to save the surfaces of concrete slabs have been tried. These slab cutters are inspected from vendor’s end on diverse parameters for make certain its faultlessness. Most recognized methods are based on Westergaard's solutions. The front axle carries an 11 kip total load which includes an appropriate impact factor. The local stress at the tire contact area is too high and we need to add steel plate on the floor to distribute the loads. Precast, pretensioned concrete box girder bridge system for simple short span. 00 psi Slab Thickness h = 6. If this was my slab and it figured 4. Mix your concrete in a mixer according to the instructions on the pack and then pour it into the boxing timber. To relieve some of these stresses and strains joints are cut in the slabs to effectively reduce the slab lengths. Wheel load stresses - Westergaard's stress equation The cement concrete slab is assumed to be homogeneous and to have uniform elastic properties with vertical sub-grade reaction being proportional to the deflection. ” Live Load Distribution For Fills < 2 Feet For fills < 2 feet, the live load distribution shall be according to Article 4. SLABS 50 Symbols 50 9. How To Reinforce Concrete Slab on Ground to Control Cracking Steel reinforcing bars and welded wire reinforcement provide crack width control in nonstructural slabs-on-ground. If a floor is of questionable slope, consider a survey of the site and/or the possibility of pouring a new level concrete slab. Aircraft coverages at specific times. 5 Introduction ENCE 454 ©Assakkaf Gravity Walls – The gravity wall (Figure 1a) depends mostly on its own weight for stability. This is the final design of the reinforced concrete deck for the design example. The amount of concrete cover over the reinforcing bar is very important. A finite element model considering the deterioration of material properties of concrete, steel and FRP under moving-wheel cyclic loading is developed and. The three Westergaard equations are reproduced here: (a) Patch load within slab: (b) Patch load at edge of slab: (c) Patch load at slab corner: where rmax is the flexural stress (N/mm2); P is the patch load (N), i. Calculate Poisson ratio, ifthc edge stress is (1. The slab thickness is determined from Figure 3a to be about 5-1/2 in. The HL93 “design truck” wheel load is the same as the HS20 wheel load. Reinforced concrete (RC) slab is deemed one of the key members in road bridges such that serious damage of the slab. These slab cutters are inspected from vendor’s end on diverse parameters for make certain its faultlessness. 50' for your depth. 3 x , valid for 0. Performance of the approach slabs are examined under simulated washout conditions. • New concrete must be adequately cured for at least 30 days. Slab Thickness (mm) Single Dowel Design Capacity (kN) Single Wheel Design Load (kN) (mid panel joint) Single Wheel Design Load (kN) (edge loading) 200 25. Order a triple tine rock lifter that needs no hydraulics to operate. A single wheel load with a tire pressure of 6. 5 Stress in concrete. An experimental study was carried out on reinforced concrete slabs under a central patch load with circular, square and rectangular shapes of patch areas. Post Load = psi: Ss = WS/(P/1000) Slab Thickness, t = in. 0 x $10^5 kg/cm^2$. Wall Plate: A steel plate laid on a masonry or a concrete wall to carry the end of a beam and to distribute its load. A typical contractor’s wheelbarrow has a volume of about 6 cubic feet. Slab thickness is the greatest single factor controlling the load-carry capacity of a slab-on-ground. The first subgrade reaction is for short-term loadings to be used for loads such as lift-truck wheel loads. But you don’t have 12 guys, you’ve got two guys and some long sections of 3” sprinkler piping. 1E on Specimen No. Hendry and L. 14 concrete slab-between-girder bridges for fatigue. Move to right to. Close to the concrete, up against the “slab”…hence the name. Other major types of distress in rigid pavements include faulting , spalling , and deterioration. The wide-use airport cement concrete direct-thickening double-deck pavement slabs (ACCDDPS) were selected as the research object to study their mechanical properties. 7 | Decorative Concrete I often lay concrete on soft beach sand and never put a piece of rebar in it and drive heavy equipment on it and never cracks. After thoroughly mixing the concrete, pour it into the forms slightly overfilling them. c) traffic requirements mean that more than 180 mm of asphalt overlay is required i. One method is to lift out large pieces of the slab, and the other method is to break up the slab. Kent G, Newhook J (1999) Wheel load tests on cantilever and internal panels on concrete deck slab on steel girders with and without bottom transverse GFRP reinforcement. Broadway Etx. Wheel load, P = 5100 kg. Re: Concrete slab load limits. The 6 inch concrete slabs on granular began cracking on average at 12 million ESALs. 1 Introduction Constructed in 1928, the Silver Bridge was an eyebar -chain suspension bridge spanning over. Stress Distribution in Rectangular Concrete Slabs Under Wheel Loads. 3 Loads Self-weight of concrete slab: 6. Dorton, Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications It has been observed that thin concrete deck slabs supported by beams or girders are generally capable of carrying concentrated wheel loads far in excess of design values. 5 wheelbarrows per cubic yard. Shear in reinforced concrete slabs under concentrated loads close to supports 33 Code extension proposal Slabs subjected to Wheel Loads • Enhancement factor depends on fck • Experiments: fck not as in shear formula • Effect of reduced support width • Proposal for av ≤ 2. A different chart is used when leg or post loads present the critical loading condition. Concrete cube strength is 40MPa, A142 fabric reinforcement (50mm bottom cover) and it is laid on 150mm hardcore. When released by the machine operator, the conveyor belt cycles one batch further at a pre-set transport speed, exposing the concrete work pieces in the blasting unit to the abrasive stream. 640 klf uniformly distributed over 10 feet in the transverse direction. A single line of wheel loads and two lines of wheel loads were analyzed. Should last a long time around the house. Since bridge deck slabs directly sustain repeated moving wheel loads, they are one of the most bridge elements susceptible to fatigue failure. 3 loads of the grey gold pumped down a narrow alley into a basement, outside slab, footings for new wall and swimming pool base. 9 Eurocode 2 design method for patch loads. Sometimes, along with this water, certain quantity of cement also comes to the surface. A concrete slab 10 in. Because of the rigidity of concrete pavements, loads are spread over large areas of the subgrade and pressures on the subgrade are very low. First, put on some heavy duty gloves. A 12,000-Ib dual-wheel load (each wheel 6000 lb) spaced at 14 in. the track from the tunnel invert. 1 Concrete 52 9. Post Load = psi: Ss = WS/(P/1000) Slab Thickness, t = in. 5 wheelbarrows per cubic yard. Modulus of elasticity of cement concrete, E = 3. Concrete Floor Slab-on-Grade Design Problem 1 - Required concrete thickness: Design a warehouse floor slab for an interior wall load of 1400 plf, stationary live load of 1200 plf, exterior wall load of 1000 plf and an average daily volume of 25-15 kip forklift trucks per day using 4000 psi concrete and a modulus of subgrade reaction, k = 150 pci. 5"L x 10"W x 7. 8% Asphalt Concrete Base Course, Type B25. Joint deflection and resistance to cracking or spalling under lift truck loads. This is the Abaco 4 Wheel Slab Dolly and this is just what you need. The stringline controls the pavement profile. A single line of wheel loads and two lines of wheel loads were analyzed. My pop drove mixer trucks for 35 years, so he learned a thing or two about concrete, and this is some of the little bits I remember him telling me WRT buying concrete for a driveway or slab. It relies on a combination of layers for transmitting load to the subgrade (see Figure 1). The deck was shored to control deflections under the wet weight of the concrete. The roof framing is lighter, as the deck supports no concrete – minimizing seismic loads and material use. This has been recognized as resulting in PCC pavement curling and warping since the mid-1920s. ' ,They,~a11ow. A typical pad has a 4-inch layer of gravel underneath and about 4 inches of concrete on top. Structural concrete work is planned to bear loads, or hold weight, but transfer the weight to the soil base beneath the structure. Concrete needs forms, gravel, mesh and finish. Nov 18th, 3:20 PM. 2 Steel-fibre-reinforced concrete 52 9 A3 Synthetic-fibre-reinforced concrete 52 9. The final suggestion, which can be easiest for steep slopes, is flipping the load over and over. Today, we are the supplier of choice, thanks to our vast product range and our industry-leading pace in delivering innovative new products to market -- always with our customers' precise needs in mind. The following table presents limits on slab span/effective depth ratio which can be used to work out the correct thickness for slabs directly at the start of design, without any need for later adjustments. The volume of traffic during the design life is. There are numerous considerations when designing composite floors for heavy local wheel loads, including but not limited to:. The rigidity of an in-situ concrete slab enables it to spread imposed loads over a sufficiently large area of the underlying soil so that any deflections are small. A concrete floor can be built closer to ground level, in many cases eliminating the need for a ramp to load wheelbarrows and other equipment. , and the user-specified structural concrete unit weight. 5 inch slab thickness, structural fibers provided a longer fatigue life, extended service life, and high load transfer efficiency across the transverse joint relative to the plain concrete slabs. Slab Saws by Covington : Covington 12" 1132T Slab Saw Covington 14" 1152T Slab Saw Covington 16" 1172T Slab Saw Covington 18" 703T Slab Saw Covington 20" 707T Slab Saw Covington 24" 712T Slab Saw Covington 24" 717T Slab Saw Covington 24" 198T Slab Saw Covington 36" 199T Slab Saw Diamond Saw Blades: Diamond Saw Blades : NEW!. A wide variety of steel for concrete slabs options are available to you, such as cold rolled, hot rolled, and erw. In this project, prefabricated FRP decks as well as FRP gridforms and rebars are investigated as replacement options. design of slab and beam floor systems (2, pp. Have someone ready to chock the wheels if there are any slopes. Spread sheets are provided for load layouts comprising of- single rows of warehouse racks, rack which are placed back to back, and forklift wheel loads. A concrete slab 10 in. The purpose of this report is. The result: concrete with high tensile strength and amazing ductility whose makeup can significantly reduce a project's steel load. The "Slab on Grade" worksheet assumes a structurally unreinforced slab, ACI-360″Type B", reinforced only for shrinkage and temperature. Sounds like about 9 1/2 yds. Include impact for the cranes moving across the slab. 0 Vertical Earth Loads 4. This slab can be poured either at the same time that the foundation walls are being poured or after they are in place. For concrete slabs 5" thick use. Slab thickness h: 25 cm Cover concrete c: 3 cm 1. 4 Steel fabric and bar 52. vided, part of the wheel load will be transferred from the left slab to the right slab. There have been reports of road bridges that deteriorated after their RC slabs had been repaired. 2 402 221 275 41. The SPEED PLATE provides load transfer across construction joints and immediately accommodates lateral and axial movement produced by concrete shrinkage and differential slab movement. In the case of continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP), two index values are defined. 10 kN/m² - 150mm RC Slab = 3. 1950 John Deere B. New concrete slabs must conform to the above stated properties before installation of the lift is deemed acceptable. Infrared, Inc. The Weha yellow 2 Wheel Slab Dolly is a great install dolly for bringing in larger pieces and islands. The rigidity of an in-situ concrete slab enables it to spread imposed loads over a sufficiently large area of the underlying soil so that any deflections are small. swiveling wheel supports wheelbarrow’s load so the user only has to balance it. Pumping is the ejection of soil slurry through the joints and cracks of cement concrete pavement, caused during the downward movement of slab under the heavy wheel loads. Alternatively, one can do it with structural steel, corrugated steel deckform, and reinforced concrete slab atop. The ballastless or slab track is a concrete or asphalt surface, replacing the standard ballasted track. O Scribd é o maior site social de leitura e publicação do mundo. Get 2020 Concrete Pad price options and installation cost ranges. In terms of load bearing capacity, the slab “as poured” was structurally stronger than the slab “as specified. Solid elements can capture the severe local deformation in the concrete slab in the vicinity of wheel loads. Perfect for helping build a backyard BBQ pit, pour a concrete slab for a shed, repair an in-ground pool or set fence posts, it handles drywall mud, plaster, stucco, mortar, concrete and more. 3 Material properties The bridge contains two types of material, the first type is the concrete and the prestressed steel is the second type. It specifies truck axle loading of 32,000 pounds or wheel loading of 16,000 pounds. The beams and some slabs are inter-connected to the topping concrete with U-shaped reinforcing stirrups. Flooring – Many finished flooring materials — either because of their impermeability (sheet vinyl, for example) or sensitivity to moisture (wood strip flooring, for example) — should only be installed over a slab with a low w/c ratio (≈0. There does not seem to be a current method available for establishing the equivalence between the actual wheel population on a bridge and fatigue loads. For the purposes of comparison of working stress design Vs ultimate strength design we will design only the beam portion of the structural concrete. Our push-on 7/8", 1'', 1½”, 2'' and 3'' rebar wheels can be used for all concrete work including precast, utility vaults, slabs, barriers, foundation work and bridges. The slab-on-grade is modeled as a plate supported on a continuous area spring. Broadway Etx. Before the slab is loaded with temporary construction loads, MEWPs etc. 4 Material properties 52 9. 12 Membrane slab—A membrane slab is a slab-on-grade designed to be liquid-tight and transmit loads directly to the subgrade. The "Slab on Grade" worksheet assumes a structurally unreinforced slab, ACI-360″Type B", reinforced only for shrinkage and temperature. Structural slab design is governed by the types and magnitude of loads on the concrete slab which may include wheel loads from forklifts or delivery vehicles, point loads from the legs of storage racks or distributed loads from product stored on the concrete slab. Binchen et al. 1E on Specimen No. The stringline controls the pavement profile. All the Technical Information you need about our products is listed here including product brochures, technical manuals, and CAD/MSD files. Highway Live Loads on Concrete Pipe Foreword Thick, high-strength pavements designed for heavy calculate the stresses in concrete slabs. Notes: 1) loads cause tension in the bottom of the concrete slab at wheel locations, 2) slab moments are maximum parallel to the axle, and 3) closer wheel spacing creates more moment in the slab tb Slabs on Grade. • New concrete must be adequately cured for at least 30 days. Input project size, product quality and labor type to get Concrete Pad material pricing and installation cost estimates. First, put on some heavy duty gloves. Case 1: Wheel load close to the corner of the slab Case 2: Wheel load a considerable distance from the edges of the slab Case 3: Wheel load at an edge of a slab, but removed from the corner. use in 4", 5" and 6" concrete slabs on grade. 24v battery power or electric models. Move to right to. Re: Problem with unlevel concrete slab. loads such as those of a wheel of a car. Solid elements can capture the severe local deformation in the concrete slab in the vicinity of wheel loads. 0 Earthquake 12. When there is a torque equilibrium around the centre of the wheel, the following equation will apply. Under some heavy loads and poor subgrade bearing conditions, concrete slabs crack. I want to use diamond plates between the new slab and the existing slab. Re: Concrete slab load limits. swiveling wheel supports wheelbarrow’s load so the user only has to balance it. 1, March 1930. failure mechanism of reinforced concrete slabs under moving wheel loads. concrete slab was 0 °C and the temperature of the top was -7°C. Such plain concrete slabs are referred to as membrane, floating, or filler slabs and range in thickness from as little as 4" to 8" depending on the supported loads. Whether you’re looking for asphalt or concrete, all our driveways are resistant to erosion or traffic-caused damage, including potholes, cracks, fissures, slab drifting and crumbling. The garage floor has no walls erected. The contact pressure is 80 psi. The slab-on-grade is modeled as a plate supported on a continuous area spring. This paper presents the results of a parametric study related to the wheel load distribution in one-span, simply supported, multilane, reinforced concrete slab bridges. The concrete slabs on asphalt base resisted a significant larger number of ESALs than the same concrete thickness on granular base. With curved girders, offsets shall be given at diaphragm lines (see Subsection 7. Condition 1 - 2' of fill or less - live load distributed to top slab per sections 3. Before the slab is loaded with temporary construction loads, MEWPs etc. But several variations are applied to this basic mix design to suit various uses and strength requirements. 2 402 221 275 41. Contours of D for beam and slab bridges, w = 33 Figure 2 lb. 3-1 (Csagoly, et al. These loads only affect the first few feet of the soil and have little, if any, long-term consolidation settlements. Structural framing plans for all composite slabs showing the size, location and type of all deck supports. Slab Bucket Trolley is made by Acme Concrete Mixers Pvt Ltd for easy ejection of materials. Deck and Deck Attachment 1. vided, part of the wheel load will be transferred from the left slab to the right slab. Get reviews and contact details for each business including phone number, postcode, opening hours and photos. 5 AASHTO wheel Load Distribution in transverse beams. Live Loads for Bridges Example: Determine the maximum shear created at point C in the beam below due to the wheel loads of a moving truck. Wheel Load Running Tests 2. This paper presents results of a parametric study related to the wheel load distribution in 1-span, simply supported, multilane, reinforced concrete slab bridges. There should be no dry pockets at this point. Description Model # 50200-HD. Offsets from a straight line (end-to-end of member) shall be given at intervals of 22 feet, or one-tenth of the span length, whichever is less. Concrete Floor Slab-on-Grade Design Problem 1 - Required concrete thickness: Design a warehouse floor slab for an interior wall load of 1400 plf, stationary live load of 1200 plf, exterior wall load of 1000 plf and an average daily volume of 25-15 kip forklift trucks per day using 4000 psi concrete and a modulus of subgrade reaction, k = 150 pci. Calculate the super-imposed loads (dead weight of storage tank and liquid in the same) on the concrete slabs; 2. For loads at a clamped end, b eff = t y + 0. The slab thickness is determined from Figure 3a to be about 5-1/2 in. Our organization is known in the industry for catering a distinguished segment of Concrete Slab Cutter. 7c-Post Load: PCA Figure 7c - Design Chart for Post Loads (k = 200 pci) 7. Using a flat shovel: Scoop and turn the concrete over on itself. The HL93 “design truck” wheel load is the same as the HS20 wheel load. As the joint width becomes wider, or if the joint is formed, the effect of aggregate interlock to transfer load is reduced and the loads are transferred by dowels. Reinforced concrete slabs varying from 40 to 100 ft in length, with load transfer, are more prevalent in northern states. 0% Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, Type S9. There does not seem to be a current method available for establishing the equivalence between the actual wheel population on a bridge and fatigue loads. Special 10" Rubber tires with weight capacity of 1100 lbs give this granite install dolly plenty of weight lifting power to handle any install. The equations for the analysis have been obtained from the Reinforced Concrete Designer’s Handbook by Reynolds and Steedman. The slab is 6 inches thick with 1/2 inch rebar in a 2 foot grid throughout. Supply and Installation options in Brisbane. Keywords: aggregate interlock, concrete pavements, crack width, joints, laboratory test, load transfer, pavement design, short slabs. I had extra bags of concrete lying around from my deck project, which is one reason why I started this little project. The airport runway simulation test station (ARSTS) was used to conduct indoor tests to demonstrate the distribution of tension stress at the bottom of slabs and slabs deflection. Weha Yellow 2 Wheel Install Slab Dolly. Introduction Aggregate interlock is an effective mechanism in transferring loads across discontinuities, such as joints and cracks, in plain or reinforced cement concrete pavements (Ioannides & Korovesis, 1990). Include impact for the cranes moving across the slab. Analysis of Concrete Pavement Responses to Temperature and Wheel Loads Measured from Intrumented Slabs January 1998 Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1639. The concrete slab is forming during the process behind the machine. 67 ×105 Pa and a tire print of 0. Joint spacing and design must take these factors into account. 67×105 Pa and a tire print of 30 cm ×20 cm was applied to the corner of the core. The concrete of hinge joints and bridge deck was cast at the same time. 4 out of 5 stars 447 # 1 Best Seller in Surface Grinding Wheels. Lightly oil the insides of the boards before mixing and laying the concrete. An interior load condition is assumed for flexural analysis. 88 cubic yards and my sub-grade (gravel) was pretty level, I would order 5. At that time, ACPA recommended replac-ing the shattered slabs (slabs with 3 or more cracks) and using cross-stitching only for longitudinal cracks within the wheel paths. X 100 W1 ( 2) in which L = efficiency of load transfer, w1 = deflection of the left or loaded slab at the joint, and w. Slab Thickness (mm) Single Dowel Design Capacity (kN) Single Wheel Design Load (kN) (mid panel joint) (edge loading) PD320300250G PD3 Cradle 20mm @ 300mm centres to suit 230-275mm slab Galv (1. 1100 lb Capacity Safety. The concentrated load F was usually a square load with edge lengths of 0. • Thickness of the CC pavement slab is decided based on the following two points: – The maximum bending tensile stress resulting out of maximum wheel load stress and critical environmental stress should be less than the flexural strength of concrete – The CC pavement should withstand the expected. Concrete Slab Design using AASHTO LRFD AASHTO LRFD allows designers to use one of the following two approaches for the concrete deck slab design: 1. The effect of gravity on the concrete slab and the repairing material was considered. 5-809-1 2 departments of the army a ir f orce m anual and the air force n o. Analysis of Concrete Pavement Responses to Temperature and Wheel Loads Measured from Intrumented Slabs. 3 Side lift. A large number of rectangular concrete slabs were analyzed using Finite Element (FE) analysis. The concrete slab is forming during the process behind the machine. The 4 Wheel Dolly is used to move loads around the work site. For precast prestressed multicell girders, live load shall be distributed according to AASHTO LRFD Tables 4. The lowest value of cracking load measured experimentally was 3. However, strong support from. Calculate self weight of the concrete slabs; 3. R + F - W - L = 0. Cast-in-place concrete I I Transverse post-tensioning (at diaphragm location) I 13 = 10 140 A-A B-B Cross Section Fig. Figure 1 shows a picture of the bridge. This is the worst loading condition from the standpoint of flexure, especially if there is no shoulder or an asphalt shoulder because the wheel loads have to be supported by half as much slab as in the interior of the pavement. The concrete has a modulus of elasticity of (27 (;Pa). contact area = 142. fwd file extension) used by TxDOT for backcalculation will only report data for the first seven sensors. Experiments on a 1:2 scale were carried out in the laboratory of the Delft University of Technology to investigate the bearing capacity of transversely prestressed concrete bridge decks subjected to concentrated wheel loads. While cracks in a slab may not seem like a big deal, the smallest crack represents a large amount of downward pressure that may be crushing pipework beneath. It has been observed that thin concrete deck slabs supported by beams or girders are generally capable of carrying concentrated wheel loads far in excess of design values established by traditional methods of analysis. prevents water in soil from moving upward into building capillary break is the air break Crushed rock or gravel, usually ¾- to 1½-in. 7 | Decorative Concrete I often lay concrete on soft beach sand and never put a piece of rebar in it and drive heavy equipment on it and never cracks. For structures, the lateral stability of which do not rely on the frame action between the slab and columns and in which adjacent spans do not differ in length by more than 25%, the design punching shear may be obtained by enhancing V Ed by 1. Concrete slab-on-ground cracking resistance via ISLAB 2000 finite element analysis (FEA). The Diamond Dowel® tapered plates are available in three sizes (depending on the loads, wheel type and repetition): 1/4″ (6mm) – typically used in 4″- 7″ slab depths; 3/8″ (10 mm) – typically used in 7″- 9″ slab depths; 3/4″ (20 mm) – typically used in 9″ plus slab depths; The Diamond Dowel® System is optimal for formed. Wheel loads independently adjustable up to 75,000 pounds per wheel. This foundation works for small 2ft x 4ft generator or recycling sheds up to 20ft x 40ft storage sheds, or larger. b) Subbase. Joint deflection and resistance to cracking or spalling under lift truck loads. The PRO 4 system includes PRO 4 shoring in combination with EFCO’s versatile E-BEAM® and Z-BEAM®. The most commonly specified steel fabrics for paving works are A142 (6mm wires), A193 (7mm wires) and A252 (8mm wires). Move to right to. 2—Scope This guide is based on the current knowledge and practices for the design, construction, and maintenance of concrete. This tool will help to achieve a better FF numbers (better floor. Detail is a plan view of a ribbed waffle slab that can be used as an example for other projects. this chart for single wheel loads. The insufficient removal of damaged materials is said to be the cause of such post-repair deterioration. Introduction Aggregate interlock is an effective mechanism in transferring loads across discontinuities, such as joints and cracks, in plain or reinforced cement concrete pavements (Ioannides & Korovesis, 1990). 1 635 349 400 94. As a result,'concrete pavements do not necessarily require strong support from below. Binchen et al. Structural concrete work is planned to bear loads, or hold weight, but transfer the weight to the soil base beneath the structure. For slabs, the static effect of the vehicle live load shall be increased by the percentage specified in Table below. 0 Buoyancy 7. The load P is the wheel load and is half the axle load. 3-Wheel Load - PCA Figure 3 - Design Chart for Single Wheel Loads; PCA Fig. The concrete punchout rating (CPR) relates to the punchout distresses and the concrete distress rating (CDR) is determined by the amount of cracking, patching and spalling within the pavement (7). I'd make the slab at least 8' wide more like 9 or 10it's a single concrete parking space and having the slab edge too close to the car will make place the vehicle more difficult AND the edge could be a trip hazard that close to the vehicle. 12 Membrane slab—A membrane slab is a slab-on-grade designed to be liquid-tight and transmit loads directly to the subgrade. Shop our large selection of stone landscaping slabs in a variety of sizes, shapes and colors. Too deep of a lift can result in excessive load pressure on the head of the vibrator and at the bottom of the form during vibration. To determine these guidelines, the fatigue behavior ofconcrete slabs must be carefully analyzed. Small enough to fit inside a three foot residential doorway opening, elevator, narrow aisle. The superstructure was composed of 13 girders, in which the leftmost girder was denominated G1. • Wheel-rail contact forces of all wheels • Displacements and bending moments of the concrete slabs of a track structure. The slabs were subjected to patch load applied at the center of slabs. The proposed method using ﬁnite element analysis incor-porates a simple constitutive model for concrete elements. A Verified CN Gold Supplier on Alibaba. Thickness design of pavement slabs is based on accumulated fatigue damage due to combined load and curl stresses. Seven slabs with full scale dimensions were tested under static load, central pulsating loads, and moving pulsating loads. The stringline controls the pavement profile. (2) Weight of slab covering materials:. The loads indicated in the tables are uniformly distributed and must not be used as the equivalent of point loads or linear loads. Ground Bearing Concrete Slabs has been specifically written to break down the 'walls' that have arisen between these three areas and focus on the issues that are common to them all. Our chairs can handle any load! Be confident knowing that your rebar will stay where you place it. 1 R-04, Concrete Floor and Slab Construction. 5 inch slab thickness, structural fibers provided a longer fatigue life, extended service life, and high load transfer efficiency across the transverse joint relative to the plain concrete slabs. Concrete driveway slabs can present a variety of problems due to soil settling, ground water issues, rodent burrowing and more. The ability to calculate the moment of a beam is very. This is the final step of superflat concrete floor construction. Wheel load, P = 5100 kg. In all cases for. Move to right to. O Scribd é o maior site social de leitura e publicação do mundo. x 4 in Concrete Block 33 lb. Punching shear failure of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs is a major concern for the structural de-signers of buildings and bridges. This has been recognized as resulting in PCC pavement curling and warping since the mid-1920s. The loaded back axle is negligible in this example. so i have a garage im placing. Impact must be added to the live load for fills less than 0. Concrete is a durable material with a long service-life. Now this proly has more to do with ocupency code than actual concrete load. Enter chart with slab stress = 16. 8% Asphalt Concrete Base Course, Type B25. A close analogy is that of a wide double or quadruple. Design a bamboo reinforced concrete slab to support a maximum wheel load of 7000 pounds. The truck travels from right to left. Light duty products are recommended for applications where maximum wheel loads do no exceed 1,000 pounds. The total bridge length is 30 ft and the total width of the deck is 24. Note: 1 m = 3. Huang, Published on 11/18/69. 0 Buoyancy 7. 15 Section Width b = 1 meter Concrete Compressive Strength F = 4,000. The load P is the wheel load and is half the axle load. One main problem area that requires frequent inspection are the joints between concrete slabs. , Experts in Manufacturing and Exporting Precast Wall Panel Machine,Cement Roof Tile and 2935 more Products. Move to right to eff. Concrete Slab on Grade Analysis for Post and Wheel Loading : Utility for Linear Interpolation between Values in a Table : Seismic design spectral acceleration values : Equation Solver for up to 10x10 Equations/Unknowns : Steel Beam Web Stiffener Analysis for Concentrated Loads (ASD) Reinforcing Bar Development and Splice Lengths (ACI 318-99). Effects of curling alone as well as curling-plus-wheel load are investigated; the latter is carried out by considering two loading scenario. Analysis of Concrete Pavement Responses to Temperature and Wheel Loads Measured from Intrumented Slabs January 1998 Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1639. Fig 2: Transfer of wheel load to foundation in rigid pavement structure a) Concrete Slab (Surface Layer). 5 kN CL-625 truck) acting on the center of each slab. Slab stresses are less for moving loads than for static loads. Concrete slabs distribute loads in a more even fashion, which means that the insulation does not need as high a compressive resistance compared to the typical simplified approach. The term wheel load is used because spans on most underground structures are so small that only one wheel can be on top of the structure at any given time. These slab cutters are inspected from vendor’s end on diverse parameters for make certain its faultlessness. A concrete trowel was used to smooth out the surface. SUNJOYCO 4" Diamond Cup Grinding Wheel, 12-Segment Heavy Duty Turbo Row Concrete Grinding Wheel Disc for Angle Grinder, for Granite, Stone, Marble, Masonry, Concrete 4. The "Slab on Grade" worksheet allows the user to account for the effect of an additional post or wheel load. The strength of concrete is rated using megapascals (MPa). Normal concrete weighs about 150 pounds per cubic foot and produces 150 pounds of pressure for each foot of concrete in the form, regardless of form width. The load distribution spread was also updated. Do the cranes have outriggers? If so, those could be even larger than the wheel loads. 0 Thermal Expansion 8. The average axis expansion/shrinking, reference temperature and thermal field correspond with a 3 mm geometric clearance between concrete slabs. Or roughly $1200 for the crete alone. For simplicity, it will be assumed that the base slab on which a finish is to be installed has adequate structural strength for the applied. If you notice a distur-bance in the stringline, notify your supervisor. 16 Most of the tests on simply supported, single‐span slabs were carried out on specimen with an overall length of 4. Joint spacing and design must take these factors into account. Concrete structural elements such as wall sections, bridge abutments and slabs on grade rely on dowels to transfer loads across the joints. Sand is 2 parts, therefore 2/7 of 2400 = 684kg. 5 wheelbarrows per cubic yard. Refer to the input comment box for recommendations. Handi-Ramp 510 North Avenue Libertyville, IL 60048 Phone: 800-876-7267 Fax: 847-816-8866. 0 q u for "normal" traffic levels - less than 5 MGT/yr - and design of 0. Fork Truck Data: Fork Truck Axle Load, Wheel Load, and Spacing Data 10. Slab length between joints will be 8 ft. The initial behavi. CONCLUSIONS The results of FEA were accurate and 3D simulation in ABAQUS software were pure, as FE analysis represented the exact model of concrete rectangular slab and reinforcements. The latter construction most often is elevated onto concrete blocks. Wall Load: Concrete Slab on Grade Analysis for Wall Load 8. c) traffic requirements mean that more than 180 mm of asphalt overlay is required i. X 100 W1 ( 2) in which L = efficiency of load transfer, w1 = deflection of the left or loaded slab at the joint, and w. G~ Jaeger was applied to find the load distribution_under Indian Roads Congress wheel loadso Two-lane bridges consisting of three or four beams were tested in the field. Or roughly $1200 for the crete alone. 5 Wheel Spacing, S = 81. 5 sack mix and has cured 60 days. 01 P when needed for use in the Westergaard formulas. The slab track design has remained virtually unchanged since the first sections were laid in 1972. Concrete slab-on-ground cracking resistance via ISLAB 2000 finite element analysis (FEA). 28 ft; 100 mm = 3. As the joint width becomes wider, or if the joint is formed, the effect of aggregate interlock to transfer load is reduced and the loads are transferred by dowels. Download books for free. Concrete Bridge Slabs August 1991 Figure 5. Each section in the guide addresses a different form of applied load: 2. A close analogy is that of a wide double or quadruple. Whether you hand mix concrete in a plastic tub, homemade mixing tub or wheelbarrow, the technique is the same to find the right concrete mix ratio. The use of screed key joints minimizes random cracking and provides proper load transfer from slab to slab. The two types of pos-sible repairs are full-panel replacement of severely cracked Precast concrete pavement technologies have been inves-tigated sporadically over the past 40 years. It is, therefore, necessary that the concrete slab is designed to withstand the stress due to warping the wheel loaded at the edge region. 38 Distribution of concentrated load on slab For a single concentrated load, the effective width shall be taken equal to e = k x [l – (x/ l)] + W. Specifically, a concrete slab on grade may be subjected to concentrated post or wheel loading. This is prevented by imposing a minimum breaking load of pavement units in a bending test for segmental pavements and specifying a minimum compressive strength for concrete pavements. Subgrade Modulus PCI Chart for Racks. That is, the concentrated post or wheel load is assumed to be well away from a “free” slab edge or corner. The "Slab on Grade" worksheet assumes a structurally unreinforced slab, ACI-360″Type B", reinforced only for shrinkage and temperature. Lower the formwork on one side to allow a slight fall for water run off when doing pathways and slabs. 3 Side lift. Slab length between joints will be 8 ft. square, and rectangular dowels and for diamond-shaped load plates are provided in ACI 302. 58 Figure 5. Enter chart with slab stress = 16. Concrete Slab on Grade Analysis for Post and Wheel Loading Download & Save the software to use (requires MS Excel) Enter your search terms Submit search form. This tool will help to achieve a better FF numbers (better floor. Joint spacing and design must take these factors into account. How thick should a concrete slab be to support a heavy truck? There are a couple of considerations on how thick the concrete should be. In order to prevent damages due to operation processes and stresses that occur in them, concrete slabs in the pavement structures must be divided as follows:. By the way, 3500psi is the compressive strength of the concrete. This case is not distinctly covered by the standards. The finite-element method was used to investigate the effect of span length, slab width with and without shoulders, and wheel load conditions on typical bridges. The PRO 4 system includes PRO 4 shoring in combination with EFCO’s versatile E-BEAM® and Z-BEAM®. 12 Membrane slab—A membrane slab is a slab-on-grade designed to be liquid-tight and transmit loads directly to the subgrade. Self-weight of the slab is modeled as a transverse distributed load acting in the negative y-direction along the full length of the slab element(s). First, put on some heavy duty gloves. When all these factors are considered it is possible one or more of the following floor design criteria may be most appropriate;. Wheel Load Running Test Method. For concrete slabs 6" thick use. 3 Impact factor = (4. Welcome to Nitterhouse Concrete Since our humble beginnings in 1923, Nitterhouse has been a consistent source of quality and innovation in the concrete manufacturing industry. Wedges and jacks to lift the slab off the garage floor so the dolly can be slid under it (flat) to load. If that’s the case, it takes some math, and the numbers will be slightly fudged as the weight is not perfectly distributed to ea. “Vertical Pressure on Culverts Under Wheel Loads on Concrete Pavement Slabs”, Portland Cement Association, 1944. Span/depth ratios for reinforced concrete slab design to BS8110. El-Gamal, a B. The slabs were subjected to patch load applied at the center of slabs. Contours of D for beam and slab bridges, w = 45 Figure 2ld. 5 AASHTO wheel Load Distribution in transverse beams. Design is in accordance with BS 8110-1:1997. 3 Material properties The bridge contains two types of material, the first type is the concrete and the prestressed steel is the second type. 1950 John Deere B. in all areas accessible to aircraft. Slab Bucket Trolley is made by Acme Concrete Mixers Pvt Ltd for easy ejection of materials. Impact must be added to the live load for fills less than 0. To investigate the composite performance of the track slab and the self-compacting concrete filling layer in the China Railway Track System III slab track structure, six segmental specimens comprising either one or a pair of sleepers were fabricated by dividing a full-scale slab track structure. The mixed concrete was either poured directly from the wheel barrow or shoveled into place. The finite-element method was used to investigate the effect of span length, slab width with and without shoulders, and wheel load conditions on typical bridges. Imposed loads varies from approximately 1. In the wheel load. C B 2 k 5 k 12 ft. 3 for top slabs of box culverts which states “The design load is always an axle load; single wheel loads are not considered. If that’s the case, it takes some math, and the numbers will be slightly fudged as the weight is not perfectly distributed to ea. Precast Pre-stressed Concrete Extruded Hollow Core Load Bearing Slab for Floors & Roofs and Walls. Shrinkage of concrete can cause failure of on-ground concrete slabs and is usually. Wall loads. Reproduced from Reference 2 with. Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement undergoes repeated environmental load-related deflection resulting from temperature and moisture variations across pavement depth. An experimental study was carried out on reinforced concrete slabs under a central patch load with circular, square and rectangular shapes of patch areas. Our chairs can handle any load! Be confident knowing that your rebar will stay where you place it. WisDOT Bridge Manual Chapter 45 – Bridge Rating July 2020 45-5 45. The "Slab on Grade" worksheet assumes a structurally unreinforced slab, ACI-360″Type B", reinforced only for shrinkage and temperature. 5 cubic yards from the Ready-Mix company. 1940 Farmall A. The slab may be continuous, or it may be composed of discrete sections. Apron areas within 50 feet of the concourses in open spaces under the concourse where aircraft loads will not be imposed shall be 8” thick. 0% Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, Type S9. - Incorrect placement can lead to serious concrete structural failures. 10 kN/m² - 150mm RC Slab = 3. prevents water in soil from moving upward into building capillary break is the air break Crushed rock or gravel, usually ¾- to 1½-in. Tanks may be constructed of prestressed or nonprestressed reinforced con-crete. The wheel contact area on the slab is estimated at 60 sq in. A single wheel load with a tire pressure of 6. An experimental study was carried out on reinforced concrete slabs under a central patch load with circular, square and rectangular shapes of patch areas. These slabs had the same clear span length as the top flange of the optimized double-tee and were loaded with a wheel patch load. The tire foot print is 4" x 4" and the wheels and axles are spaced 48 in. Similarly, the evaluation can be performed with the load plate tangent to the joint on the adjacent slab, where the W8 sensor will be used in the above formula in place of the W2 jt reading. 2 Units 57 9. Third, reinforced concrete decks may also function as part of the top flange of steel open girder, steel box girder, prestressed concrete and concrete box girder bridges. The amount of concrete cover over the reinforcing bar is very important. 5 wheelbarrows per cubic yard. 2 < x < l , t y ≤ 0. this chart for single wheel loads. Dimensions and weights used in wheel load calculations 3. 5 Wheel Spacing, S = 81. Today, we are the supplier of choice, thanks to our vast product range and our industry-leading pace in delivering innovative new products to market -- always with our customers' precise needs in mind. 1 metres, the area that you ask about is obviously 60 square metres, (6 x 10). Too deep of a lift can result in excessive load pressure on the head of the vibrator and at the bottom of the form during vibration. When all these factors are considered it is possible one or more of the following floor design criteria may be most appropriate;. These methods are the NAASRA. (406 mm) deep x 48 in. Figure 2la. The "Slab on Grade" worksheet allows the user to account for the effect of an additional post or wheel load. Otherwise a 3 or 4 wheel cart. The term wheel load is used because spans on most underground structures are so small that only one wheel can be on top of the structure at any given time. forklift trucks, trolley and other vehicles. Dorton, Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications It has been observed that thin concrete deck slabs supported by beams or girders are generally capable of carrying concentrated wheel loads far in excess of design values. Concrete working stress = MR/FS. llolowka and R. This paper presents results of a parametric study related to the wheel load distribution in 1-span, simply supported, multilane, reinforced concrete slab bridges. OUR COMPANY SUPPLIES A WIDE RANGE OF QUALITY PRECAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS TO THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY ALL ACROSS COUNTRY. Close to the concrete, up against the “slab”…hence the name. The 6” slab is supported on soil with a subgrade modulus of 100 kcf. Wheel loads independently adjustable up to 75,000 pounds per wheel. The effect of gravity on the concrete slab and the repairing material was considered. Although the k-value does not reflect the effect of compressible soil layers at some depth in the subgrade, it is the correct factor to use in design for wheel loads and other concentrated loads because. Concrete Slab on Grade Analysis for Post and Wheel Loading : Utility for Linear Interpolation between Values in a Table : Seismic design spectral acceleration values : Equation Solver for up to 10x10 Equations/Unknowns : Steel Beam Web Stiffener Analysis for Concentrated Loads (ASD) Reinforcing Bar Development and Splice Lengths (ACI 318-99). HOW TO MIX CONCRETE. 67×105 Pa and a tire print of 30 cm ×20 cm was applied to the corner of the core. TraffikDrain combines the benefits of Polycrete Channels with a choice of purpose designed grates to minimise ponding and other dangers for road users. When the system is not moving, the sum of all forces and torques equals 0. square, and rectangular dowels and for diamond-shaped load plates are provided in ACI 302. Precast offers almost limitless options in the variety of products and design options, including finish, color, size, and shape. Because concrete floor slabs are rigid, concentrated loads from forklift wheels or rack posts are spread over a larger area of sub-grade which results in lower pressures than the slab surface is exposed to. These slabs had the same clear span length as the top flange of the optimized double-tee and were loaded with a wheel patch load. A train running along this track provides input excitation to the system both through its moving static load and through irregularities such as rail-wheel roughness, wheel flats and rail joints. A concrete slab foundation is also excellent for ground level access. Wheel Load Running Tests 2. Our push-on 7/8", 1'', 1½”, 2'' and 3'' rebar wheels can be used for all concrete work including precast, utility vaults, slabs, barriers, foundation work and bridges. In U-bar stitching, slots are cut using a slot cutting machine and concrete is broken and removed by pneumatic hammer. 2—Scope This guide is based on the current knowledge and practices for the design, construction, and maintenance of concrete. The efficiency of load transfer can be defined as L = w. 7% Asphalt Concrete Surface Course, Type S9. Steel mesh holds the concrete together when it cracks - it keeps the cracks from widening and limits offset, to a reasonable degree. The contact pressure is 80 psi. Deeper diamond grinding will expose the coarse aggregate in the concrete pavement. It may also be used to form a vertical joint between the two sections of wall. 8 q u when traffic levels exceed 5 MGT. Very tight access through an estate this morning for De Novo Construction. Keywords: aramid fiber sheet, RC slab, wheel running test, strengthening, lifespan extension 1. Suspended ground slabs are generally subjected to high concentrated point loading (150 kN, or 33. The cracks of major con-cern were the longitudinal cracks in or near the wheel tracks in the driving lanes. The AREMA Manual covers all phases of railway design, construction, maintenance and operation. Two wheel loads of 9,000 lbs. If any of the components of a heavy duty trench drain system fail, then the channel drain is compromised. Special 10" Rubber tires with weight capacity of 1100 lbs give this granite install dolly plenty of weight lifting power to handle any install. The Rated Axle Load Enhancement (RALE) system concept involves the use of longitudinal stems to stiffen the concrete slab. 7 kips) intensities as well as high uniformly distributed loadings (50 kN/m 2 or 1000 lb/ft 2) and wheel loads.

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